Myopia is the medical term used to describe nearsightedness, one of the most common problems of the eye. It is the most prevalent type of refractive error in the recent years which is steadily increasing in number. Your eye becomes strained and tired causing headache and fatigue due to myopia. What exactly causes myopia is not known. Myopia can be easily managed by wearing corrective glasses or contact lenses.
Primary symptom of myopia is having difficulty in reading road signs that are displayed at some distance. People will have problems in seeing objects that are placed at some distance, but they will have no problem in completing close-up tasks like computer usage. Some of the common symptoms of myopia are headache, eye strain, feeling fatigue while driving.
Exact cause of myopia is still not known. It is believed to occur if the eyeball is very lengthy that affects the focusing capacity of the cornea or eye lens. Subsequently this would focus the light rays at one point in front of the retina instead on its surface. For some people myopia is caused if the cornea or lens is very curvy in shape when compared with the length of the eyeball. Myopia can also be hereditary and you have high risk if your parents or sibling have nearsightedness. Often myopia begins in early childhood and stabilizes during adulthood, but in some cases it begins in adulthood also.
If you have difficulty in seeing distant objects you can visit your ophthalmologist who can detect myopia or nearsightedness by examining your eye through special device.
It can be treated by using corrective glasses or contact lens or using refractive surgery. Your eye doctor will decide the best option for you based on your symptoms. You will be prescribed corrective glasses or lenses for viewing distant objects. Some people will be asked to wear glasses throughout the day and others will be advised to use it only while driving or watching television or movie.
Often, the power of your eyeglass will begin with a minus sign if you have myopia. In case you have higher number it indicates that you will have to wear stronger lenses or glasses for myopia. Nowadays by refractive surgery children having myopia can attain freedom from wearing glasses or lenses, if the problem is detected during childhood. PRK, abbreviated form of photo refractive keratectomy is a type of laser therapy in which the unwanted layer tissue is removed. This in turn will send the incoming light to get focused on the surface of the retina itself instead of at some point.
LASIK is the leading laser surgery used for correcting myopia. In this procedure, laser beams are used to remove part of corneal tissue. In some people, corneal rings or intacs are placed into the eye for altering the shape of the cornea. One advantage in using these rings is that they can be removed easily if you have any problem. Some doctors recommend Rigid Gas Permeable RGP contact lenses which you will have to wear while you are asleep so that the cornea will suitably alter its shape slowly.
In the subsequent morning you can see clearly the distant objects. This is a non surgical procedure called orthokeratology. Alternatively corneal refractive therapy is done for repairing mild types of myopia. Both the above procedure is effective for correcting myopia in children and adults who are not suited for LASIK therapy. For people with high intensity of myopia phakic IOL is the best option with less complication. The IOL used in this procedure is left on the natural lens of your eyes.
There are severe types of myopia called as degenerative myopia, in which the power grows on your age. However it is a rare condition and can be detected during childhood. It is also known as malignant myopia in which eyeball length can grow rapidly causing sudden loss of vision. Such cases will develop retinal detachment or sometimes bleeding inside the eye. A person with degenerative myopia can develop cataract in later ages.