Nocturia can be defined as the condition which compels one to wake up during night to urinate one or more times. Aged people have this problem commonly. Nocturia can affect the quality of sleep and may cause significant problems in adults. It can seriously affect the onset of sleep and can cause sleep disturbance.
Normal adult needs 6-8 hours of sleep for staying energetic. But people having nocturia will have to wake up at least 2 or 3 times during night which may cause serious disturbances in their sleeping pattern.
The affected individual will be urinating largely producing high quantity of urine daily. His body is conditioned to discharge large volumes of urine while sleeping. More volumes of urine are produced during night than during daytime.
Improper sleeping pattern and poor sleep is one of the major symptoms of nocturia. Since he will have to wake up for going to bathroom several times, he finds it difficult to go to sleep again.
Cause depends on the types of nocturia a person is affected.
In case of polyuria it can be caused due to high intake of fluids during night. It can be due to diabetes (Type 1 and 2) and also due to pregnancy.
For women it is quite common to experience nocturia after childbirth and menopause stage. Men can get nocturia due to benign prostatic hyperplasia or enlarged prostate gland.
For some people it can be due to decreased capacity of the bladder function during night, excess of urine is produced. Fluid redistribution is a condition in which fluids are reabsorbed into the blood causing accumulation of fluids in legs and fingers leading to edema or swelling of legs.
Persons who have underlying medical causes like diabetes, hypertension, cardiac problems, vascular diseases, sleeping disorders may also experience nocturia.
Nocturia may occur due to bladder infection, bladder obstruction cyst in the bladder and due to bladder malignancy. The bladder becomes less capable of retaining the urine during night time.
Your doctor will find out the underlying cause by asking series of questions and by recording the total fluid intake and output. You should also discuss with them about the medications you are taking for any diseases.
He may order for urine analysis for finding out the right cause.
Nocturia can be treated by making little changes in the lifestyle. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. For diabetic patients intake of fluid should be restricted after evening.
In case if the problem of discharging urine many times at night is due to sleep apnea you need to take treatment with pulmonologist.
Generally you should restrict the fluid intake after 6PM and avoid taking coffee or alcohol before going to bed. For individuals who are taking diuretic medications you should change the timings and take them before evening.
Your doctor will ask you to write down in a diary about the number of times you void during night. You need to write about what you ate before bedtime and also about the medicines you are using.
You can keep your legs in elevated position which will prevent urine accumulation in the bladder. Try wearing compression stockings that may help you with this problem.
Medications like anticolinergic drugs are prescribed for reducing the activity of bladder. Bumex and Lasix will be given in controlled doses for regulating the total discharge of urine. Medications like Imipramine and Desmopressin are also prescribed for nocturia.